Lake of the Month: Bone Lake of Polk County

Bone Lake, or Onondogacona as it was named by its Native American inhabitants in 900 AD, is a 1,667 acre lake located in Polk County. It received its unorthodox name after early European inhabitants found the remnants, and bones, of Native Americans on an island in the lake. Originally named Lake of the Small Pines in the Ojibwe language, this scenic lake supported a trading post at its south end during the early 1700s.

Bone Lake of Polk County.  Photo by Karen Engelbretson.

Bone Lake of Polk County. Photo by Karen Engelbretson.

Today, the large lake supports more than 500 residential lots along its 12 mile shoreline. Over the years, the large lake population has weighed on the lake’s water quality along with changes in the lake’s watershed. Since 1995, DNR has provided 18 grants to the Bone Lake Management District that address water quality, aquatic plant management and aquatic invasive species prevention and control. For example, a 2008 Lake Management Planning grant helped develop five goals the District is working to accomplish. These included:

  1. Improving Bone Lake’s water quality by 20 percent in 10 years;
  2. Maintaining and enhancing Bone Lake’s natural beauty;
  3. Protecting and enhancing the wildlife habitat;
  4. Protecting and improving Bone Lake’s fishery; and
  5. Maintaining safe, effective navigation on Bone Lake.

Since then, the lake has received additional grants from the DNR to implement the lake management plan, create a comprehensive aquatic invasive species detection and response plan and develop an aquatic plant management plan.

Outreach efforts supported by DNR included the production on an educational map of Bone Lake that was mailed to all property owners. One long time, permanent resident remarked, “I had no idea there was so much wildlife here.”

Bone Lake Wildlife Habitat Map. Courtesy of Bone Lake Management District.

Bone Lake Wildlife Habitat Map. Courtesy of Bone Lake Management District.

More than 45 percent of runoff into Bone Lake comes from residential areas around the lake and contributes to water quality problems. The runoff contains phosphorus which fertilizes algal growth. As a result, the Bone Lake Management District has offered its residents free environmental consultation visits, native plant reimbursement plans and help with replacing septic systems. The native plantings stabilize soil and capture runoff while new septic systems replace old ones that leaked phosphorus and other nutrients.

In 2006, the average water clarity reading on a secchi disk reading was only five feet. In 2014, six years after implementing their lake management plan, the secchi disk reading increased by 70 percent to 8 ½ feet, which is the average secchi disk depth of nearby lakes.

Though the District’s efforts seem to have improved water clarity, Bone Lake continues to fluctuate between mesotrophic and eutrophic on the trophic state index. The trophic state index is a composite measure of phosphorous, chlorophyll and secchi disk readings and indicates lake water quality during the summer months.

One result of low oxygen levels in the deepest parts of the lake is internal loading. Internal loading occurs when phosphorus bound to iron in lake sediments is liberated into the water column. With adequate oxygen levels phosphorus remains bound to iron. When oxygen becomes scarce iron changes chemically and releases the phosphorus it previously held. Back in the water column, phosphorus can again stimulate algal growth. A DNR funded study of Bone Lake showed that internal loading was a significant contributor to the lake’s phosphorous load (23 percent).

Bone Lake is working to encourage Common Loons to again nest there.

Bone Lake is working to encourage Common Loons to again nest there.

While the hard work of DNR and the Bone Lake Management District have shown improvements in water clarity, opportunities for additional advances remain. Current studies funded by DNR grants are working to determine the best steps to implement the Bone Lake’s management plant. With continued efforts, the water quality of Bone Lake will get even better. The decades of effort by residents of Bone Lake demonstrate the important role they play in the lake’s health and well-being.

Entry written by Alyson Douglas, Aquatic Invasive Species Program Assistant.

Photo of common loon pair

Updated December 3, 2014
Posted in Contain and Control Invasive Species, Education and Outreach, Grants, Lake News, Other, Water Quality | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Haunted Lakes of Wisconsin

Many words are used to describe Wisconsin, idyllic, charming, quaint … but spooky? Lakes are popular destinations, to both the living and the dead. Read below and encounter some peculiar stories of beloved Wisconsin lakes.

Fowler Lake, Oconomowoc

This idyllic lake in Southeastern Wisconsin lies in the middle of Oconomowoc. Its shores line the downtown streets next to its neighbor Lac La Belle. But Oconomowoc natives know there is more to this small lake than nice fishing. Fowler Lake’s shores are home to the living, and dead. La Belle Cemetery lines its eastern shoreline, and odd things have been occurring there since the cemetery began in the 1800s.

The mourning woman at the Nathusius monument.

The mourning woman at the Nathusius monument.

La Belle Cemetery is infamous for its inhabitants so much so that many professional ghost hunting groups visit the cemetery in attempts to unravel its secrets. It is said the statue of a mourning woman in front of the Nathusius monument cries tears of blood and will cause blindness if you steal the pennies others leave in her hand. Others have reported seeing a young woman drag a chain into Fowler’s waters and drowning herself.

All residents of Fowler lake enjoy its nice fishing, alive or not.

Lakes Monona and Mendota, Madison

Lake Monona is one of the five lakes forming the Yahara chain in Dane County. Although many visit this area for the culture and a visit the State Capital, Lake Monona offers ghost tourists a variety of attractions. Past Native Americans created many burial mounds around Lake Monona which were left undisturbed until the 1800s when Europeans began to make their homes, sometimes building on these mounds. Subsequently, many residents have reported signs of a haunting in their homes, such as furniture shaking, visible orbs, and odd noises.

The unlucky residents of Lake Monona are also the caretakers of a large serpent said to live in its deepest depths. In 1897, a father and his two sons were the first to report spotting a large serpent with “a shape like the bottom of a boat, but twice as long.” However, even if this beast, were caught it could not feed a city-wide Friday Fish Fry.

Those traumatized by their fear might end up at the local hospital, Central Wisconsin Center. An abandoned building across the way, the Mendota Mental Health Institute on the shore of Lake Mendota, has lain empty since 1994, but has been a beacon for supernatural activity since its creation in 1860. Those who have visited the Mendota Mental Hospital report an eerie feeling, like someone or something is watching. Shadows and orbs have also appeared to people. The hospital is infamous for treating murderer and body snatcher Edward Gein (who has inspired many thrillers such as Psycho, Texas Chain Saw Massacre, and Silence of the Lamb, to name a few.)

The Native American burial mounds around the former Mendota Mental Health Institute.

The Native American burial mounds around the former Mendota Mental Health Institute.

Next time you visit our state capital treat yourself to an adventure by walking the shores of Lakes Monona and Mendota… alone… if you dare.

West Bay Lake, Vilas County

West Bay Lake lies on the border between Michigan’s Upper Peninsula and Wisconsin, except for residents of Summerwind Mansion, who believed it existed between the living and the afterlife. Summerwind Mansion, once a luxurious residence on the western shore of West Bay Lake, has been haunted since built in the early 1900s. The house was bought by Robert Patterson Lamont in 1916 and remodeled into a mansion. Lamont first heard of the paranormal activity from his maids and workmen. In the mid-1930s, after Lamont and his wife encountered a spectral apparition so vivid Lamont shot at it, the Lamont family evacuated the premise. The house was bought by the Keefer family in the 1940s, but they never moved into their new residence.

In the 1970s, Summerwind Mansion was bought by Arnold and Ginger Hinshaw, who moved into the haunted mansion with their four children. The Hinshaws reported multiple signs of supernatural activity, ranging from orbs and spectral visions, to problems with the house’s doors, windows, and electricity for no plausible reason. Arnold Hinshaw had a mental breakdown just six months after moving into Summerwind, and Ginger Hinshaw moved in with her parents soon afterward. The Hinshaws were the last permanent residents and Summerwind has lain empty since despite efforts by Ginger’s father, Raymond Bober, to renovate the mansion and turn it into a restaurant.
In the 1988, Summerwind was mostly destroyed in a fire caused by lightning. The ruins of this once beautiful mansion lurk the shores to this day, but being on private land, are closed to visitors. Perhaps for the better…

Happy Halloween from Wisconsin Lakes Blog.

Happy Halloween from Wisconsin Lakes Blog.

This Halloween, instead of watching a scary movie at home, try your paranormal luck and explore a nearby lake. You never know what might be lurking beneath the water…

Entry written by Alyson Douglas, Aquatic Invasive Species Program Assistant.

Illustration credits

Figure 1.  The mourning woman at the Nathusius monument.

Figure 2.  The Native American burial mounds around Mendota Mental Health Institute.

Figure 3. Woman with pumpkin

 

Posted in Education and Outreach, Lake News, Lake Questions, Other | Tagged , , , | 2 Comments

Through the Looking Glass … Again.

A persistent misconception about aquatic plants is that they are “weeds”. With names like pondweed, pickerelweed and duckweed, it’s not hard to understand why this view  persists. Yet, native aquatic plants are important for healthy lakes. Seventeen years ago a then-new book on Wisconsin’s aquatic plants began dispelling this notion and explained the important roles these plants play in lakes and rivers.

Cover of "Through the Looking Glass, a Field Guide to Aquatic Plants, second edition"

Cover of “Through the Looking Glass, a Field Guide to Aquatic Plants, second edition”

That now classic book “Through the Looking Glass, a Field Guide to Aquatic Plants” is making its second debut. TTLG, named for Lewis Carroll’s famous book, captured a wide readership among lake enthusiasts because it combined clear writing, useful identification tips, scholarship and careful yet artistic illustrations. Like Carroll’s book where Alice passed through a looking glass to another world, TTLG provided entry into another, albeit watery, world.

The new edition of TTLG, like the first, resulted from collaboration between DNR, the University of Wisconsin Extension Lakes program, and non-profit Wisconsin Lakes. While TTLG’s focus is on Wisconsin’s aquatic plants, its usefulness and attractive layout gained a wide readership because it made these seemingly inaccessible plants accessible to novice and professional alike. Consequently, TTLG sold in all 50 states and at least five other countries. But, since TTLG was first published in 1997 much has changed in the realm of aquatic plants.

These changes are reflected in TTLG’s new edition and include updates to the plants’ scientific names, new aquatic invasive species of plants and practices for slowing the spread of AIS. Further, the new edition has additional species, both invasive and native, more identification tips and new illustrations. The book now includes a brief section on the floristic quality index.  FQI describes a lake’s water quality based on the plants found in a lake and is useful for tracking changes in the lake. Also, shaded tabs on page margins quickly guide readers to the book’s four plant groupings: emergent, free-floating, floating-leaf and submersed.

TTLG book mark artTo maintain the first edition’s high standards, a team of specialists assembled in late 2012 to start the revision. Fortunately, two of the three original authors, Susan Borman and Robert Korth, provided guidance. Other team members came from DNR, UW-Madison’s Center for Limnology, UW – Stevens Point’s Freckmann Herbarium and UWEX Lakes.  After one face-to-face meeting in late 2012, the team regularly teleconferenced over the next year to identify the needed changes and write the revisions and additions.

What could have been a major impediment was the unavailability of the original artist, Carol Watkins.  Fortunately, Dorothy Semple stepped into the void and crafted the new illustrations that blend so well with Watkins’ originals. Once the revised text and illustrations were completed, the book went to the original publisher, Reindl Printing in Merrill, Wisconsin.

So, this autumn, when, quoting Lewis Carroll, “the woods look sleepy [and] when the leaves are getting brown,” the new edition of TTLG went on sale. Comparing the two editions side by side, it’s immediately apparent the high standards of the first edition remain and the new parts enhance the original features.

Looking back at the revision process, DNR’s Sandy Wickman reminisced, “Everyone was so helpful on the TTLG team. We were lucky to have such great people. I loved listening to the team talk about these fascinating plants. I learned a lot.”

If you’d like to secure your own copy of “Through the Looking Glass, a Field Guide to Aquatic Plants, Second Edition” from UWEX Lakes for $29.95 and learn a lot, click here.

 

Entry written by Michael Putnam, Water Resources Management Specialist
Posted in Education and Outreach, Lake News, Lakes Partnership, Other, Water Quality | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Improvements to the DNR surface water grants program.

This summer the Lakes blog brought you news of improvements regarding DNR’s Clean Boats Clean Waters grant application process. Well, it’s time again to share more news on improvements to surface water planning and protection grants, and aquatic invasive species grants.

In September DNR posted a new online grant application form and updated grant guidance for all surface water grants. The biggest change is the creation of one electronic application form for lake, river and AIS grant projects. All project information for the grant application can now be included into the application form and submitted via email to dnrsurfacewatergrants@wi.gov. Say farewell to snail mail and faxing grant applications!

Earlier efforts at preparing a surface water grant application.

Earlier efforts at preparing a surface water grant application.

Also new are application deadlines. Applications for river and lake planning grants, lake classification and ordinance development grants, and two AIS grants (Clean Boats Clean Waters and AIS Education, Prevention and Planning) are now due December 10. Applications for lake or river protection grants as well as for AIS established population control grants are now due February 1. The new deadlines ensure grant recipients will be notified of successful projects early enough to allow for project planning before the summer field season is in full swing. The new deadlines move paperwork to after the field season and free up more time for lake work by lake groups, contractors and lake/river biologists when ice is off the lakes.

Detail from an early lake grant application.

Detail from an early lake grant application.

There is also a new consolidated grant guidance document outlining what projects are eligible for lake, river, and AIS grants. Anyone interested in applying for one of the surface water grants should read through the guidance document and start working with their regional river or lake coordinator as soon as possible. Successful applicants give considerable thought to their projects before applying and it’s never too early to start identifying needs, goals, and project expectations.

Completing an online application. Photo by Tomas Helberg.

Completing an online application. Photo by Tomas Helberg.

For more information on the surface water grants check out the website or contact your local DNR Regional Coordinator.

Entry written by Shelly Thomsen and Michael Putnam, Water Resources Management Specialists.
Illustration credits
Figure 1.  Escribano by Jean Le Tavernier showing Jean Miélot, a European author and scribe, at work.
Figure 2.   Illuminated Manuscript, Collection of poems (masnavi), A mouse and a frog near a pond, Walters Art Museum Ms. W.626, fol. 289a.
Figure 3. Woman at computer by Tomas Helber.
Posted in Clean Boats, Clean Waters, Contain and Control Invasive Species, Grants, Invasive Species, Other | Tagged , , | Leave a comment